React 顶层 API

react 是React库的入口点。如果你通过 <script> 标签加载React,这些顶层API可用于 React 全局。如果你使用ES6,你可以使用 import React from 'react'。如果你使用ES5,你可以使用 var React = require('react')



React 组件可以让你把UI分割为独立、可复用的片段,并将每一片段视为相互独立的部分。React组件可以通过继承 React.ComponentReact.PureComponent 来定义。

如果不用ES6类,你可以使用 create-react-class 模块。参阅 Using React without JSX 了解更多信息。

React components can also be defined as functions which can be wrapped:

Creating React Elements

推荐 使用JSX 描述你的UI外观。每个JSX元素仅是调用 React.createElement 的语法糖。如果使用了JSX,你通常不会直接调用以下方法。

参阅 Using React without JSX 了解更多。

Transforming Elements

React 提供了几个API用于操纵元素:


React also provides a component for rendering multiple elements without a wrapper.



Suspense lets components “wait” for something before rendering. Today, Suspense only supports one use case: loading components dynamically with React.lazy. In the future, it will support other use cases like data fetching.



ES6 类 定义时,React.Component是React组件的基类。

class Greeting extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return <h1>Hello, {}</h1>;

有关基类 React.Component 的方法和属性列表,请参阅 React.Component API Reference


React.PureComponent 类似于 React.Component。它们的不同之处在于React.Component 没有实现 shouldComponentUpdate(),但是 React.PureComponent实现了它。采用对属性和状态用浅比较的方式。

如果React组件的 render() 函数在给定相同的props和state下渲染为相同的结果,在某些场景下你可以使用 React.PureComponent 来提升性能。


React.PureComponentshouldComponentUpdate() 只会对对象进行浅对比。如果对象包含复杂的数据结构,它可能会因深层的数据不同而产生漏报判断。仅当你知道拥有的是简单的属性和状态时,才去继承 PureComponent,或者在你知道深层的数据结构已经发生改变时使用 forceUpate()。或者,考虑使用 不可变对象 来促进嵌套数据的快速比较。

此外,React.PureComponentshouldComponentUpdate() 会略过为整个组件的子树更新属性。请确保所有的子级组件也是”纯”的。


const MyComponent = React.memo(function MyComponent(props) {
  /* render using props */

React.memo is a higher order component. It’s similar to React.PureComponent but for function components instead of classes.

If your function component renders the same result given the same props, you can wrap it in a call to React.memo for a performance boost in some cases by memoizing the result. This means that React will skip rendering the component, and reuse the last rendered result.

By default it will only shallowly compare complex objects in the props object. If you want control over the comparison, you can also provide a custom comparison function as the second argument.

function MyComponent(props) {
  /* render using props */
function areEqual(prevProps, nextProps) {
  return true if passing nextProps to render would return
  the same result as passing prevProps to render,
  otherwise return false
export default React.memo(MyComponent, areEqual);

This method only exists as a performance optimization. Do not rely on it to “prevent” a render, as this can lead to bugs.


Unlike the shouldComponentUpdate() method on class components, the areEqual function returns true if the props are equal and false if the props are not equal. This is the inverse from shouldComponentUpdate.



创建并返回给定类型的新 React element 。参数type既可以是一个标签名称字符串(例如'div''span' ),也可以是一个 React component 类型(一个类或一个函数),或者一个React fragment 类型。

React.DOM 提供了DOM组件的 React.createElement() 的便捷包装。举个例子,React.DOM.a(...)React.createELement('a', ...) 的一个便捷包装。这个用法被认为是过时的,我们推荐您使用JSX,或者直接使用 React.createElement()

JSX 编写的代码会被转换成用 React.createElement() 实现。如果使用了JSX,你通常不会直接调用 React.createElement()。参阅 React Without JSX 了解更多。



克隆并返回一个新的React元素(React Element),使用 element 作为起点。生成的元素将会拥有原始元素props与新props的浅合并。新的子级会替换现有的子级。来自原始元素的 keyref 将会保留。

React.cloneElement() 几乎相当于:

<element.type {...element.props} {...props}>{children}</element.type>

然而,它也保留了全部的 ref。这意味着,如果你通过 ref 获取到孩子时,不会偶然从祖先组件里窃取了它。你将获得同一个ref附着到你的新元素。

引入这个API用来替换已弃用的 React.addons.cloneWithProps()



返回一个函数,此函数创建给定类型的React元素。类似 React.createElement,类型参数既可以是一个标签名称字符串(such as 'div' or 'span'),也可以是一个 React component 类型(一个类或一个函数),或者一个React fragment类型。

这个方法被认为是遗留的,我们鼓励你使用JSX或直接使用 React.createElement() 来替代它。

如果使用了JSX,你通常不会直接调用React.createFactory() 。参阅 React Without JSX了解更多 。



验证对象是否是一个React元素。返回 truefalse


React.Children 提供了处理 this.props.children 这个不透明数据结构的工具。, function[(thisArg)])

在包含在 children 里的每个直接孩子上调用一个函数,并且this 设置为 thisArg 。如果 children 是一个数组它将被遍历,函数将被调用为每个数组中的孩子。如果 childrennullundefined ,这个方法将返回 nullundefined 而不是一个数组。


如果 children 是一个 Fragment,它将被当作单独一个孩子,不会被遍历。


React.Children.forEach(children, function[(thisArg)])

类似 ,但是不返回数组。



返回 children 中的组件总数,等于传给 mapforEach 的回调函数被调用的次数。





React.Children.only() 不接受 the return value of 因为它是一个数组而不是一个React元素。



返回children 不透明的数据结构作为一个扁平数组,并将键赋给每个孩子。一个用途是当你打算在渲染方法里操纵子代集合时,特别是你想在 this.props.children 传下它之前对它重新排序或切片。


当扁平化子代列表时,React.Children.toArray() 改变key来保留嵌套数组的语义。也就是说,toArray 会给被返回的数组中的每个键加上前缀。这样每个元素的键会应用作用域到它的输入数组。


React.Fragment 组件让你在一个render() 方法中返回多个元素,而不用创造一个额外的 DOM 元素:

render() {
  return (
      Some text.
      <h2>A heading</h2>

You can also use it with the shorthand <></> syntax. For more information, see React v16.2.0: Improved Support for Fragments.


React.createRef creates a ref that can be attached to React elements via the ref attribute.

class MyComponent extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {

    this.inputRef = React.createRef();

  render() {
    return <input type="text" ref={this.inputRef} />;

  componentDidMount() {


React.forwardRef creates a React component that forwards the ref attribute it receives to another component below in the tree. This technique is not very common but is particularly useful in two scenarios:

React.forwardRef accepts a rendering function as an argument. React will call this function with props and ref as two arguments. This function should return a React node.

function enhance(Component) {
  class Enhanced extends React.Component {
    // ...

    render() {
      const {forwardedRef,} = this.props;

      // Assign the custom prop "forwardedRef" as a ref
      return <Component ref={forwardedRef} {} />;

  // Intercept the "ref" and pass it as a custom prop, e.g. "forwardedRef"
  function enhanceForwardRef(props, ref) {
    return <Enhanced {...props} forwardedRef={ref} />;

  // These next lines are not necessary,
  // But they do give the component a better display name in DevTools,
  // e.g. "ForwardRef(withTheme(MyComponent))"
  const name = Component.displayName ||;
  enhanceForwardRef.displayName = `enhance(${name})`;

  return React.forwardRef(enhanceForwardRef);

In the above example, React passes a ref given to <FancyButton ref={ref}> element as a second argument to the rendering function inside the React.forwardRef call. This rendering function passes the ref to the <button ref={ref}> element.

As a result, after React attaches the ref, ref.current will point directly to the <button> DOM element instance.

For more information, see forwarding refs.


React.lazy() lets you define a component that is loaded dynamically. This helps reduce the bundle size to delay loading components that aren’t used during the initial render.

You can learn how to use it from our code splitting documentation. You might also want to check out this article explaining how to use it in more detail.

// This component is loaded dynamically
const SomeComponent = React.lazy(() => import('./SomeComponent'));

Note that rendering lazy components requires that there’s a <React.Suspense> component higher in the rendering tree. This is how you specify a loading indicator.


Using React.lazywith dynamic import requires Promises to be available in the JS environment. This requires a polyfill on IE11 and below.


React.Suspense let you specify the loading indicator in case some components in the tree below it are not yet ready to render. Today, lazy loading components is the only use case supported by <React.Suspense>:

// This component is loaded dynamically
const OtherComponent = React.lazy(() => import('./OtherComponent'));

function MyComponent() {
  return (
    // Displays <Spinner> until OtherComponent loads
    <React.Suspense fallback={<Spinner />}>
        <OtherComponent />

It is documented in our code splitting guide. Note that lazy components can be deep inside the Suspense tree — it doesn’t have to wrap every one of them. The best practice is to place <Suspense> where you want to see a loading indicator, but to use lazy() wherever you want to do code splitting.

While this is not supported today, in the future we plan to let Suspense handle more scenarios such as data fetching. You can read about this in our roadmap.


React.lazy() and <React.Suspense> are not yet supported by ReactDOMServer. This is a known limitation that will be resolved in the future.